Afghanistan is a landlocked state located in Central Asia. The geography of Afghanistan is quite diverse with plains, caves valleys and mountains. It borders with Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan to the north, China to the east, Pakistan to the south and east and with Iran to the west.  Below, the geographic features will be displayed that show the following features:


  • The total surface (in square kilometers and miles)
  • The surface of internal bodies of water as a share of the total surface
  • The average temperature (median, highest and lowest)
  • The average rainfall
  • The distance of the Afghan capital to the rest of the world.

Afghanistan (officially called the Islamic republic of Afghanistan) means land of the Afghanis. Historically, Afghanistan has been a gateway for the silk road, which connected trade between the European continent to China. At present, Afghanistan is taking part in a similar project, the Belt and Road initiative, initiated by China.


Since its existence, Afghanistan has been subjected to governmental overthrows, coups and civil wars. The most recent of which is the military invasion of the United States as a response to the 9/11 attacks which were instigated by Osama bin Laden, a Saudi national who was protected from extradition by the taliban.


Afghanistan is the 40th largest state in the world. The current size of Afghanistan is 655.491 km2 (253089 mi2) which makes it slightly larger than France. From the east to the west of Afghanistan spans a width of about 1300 kilometers (807 miles) and from the north to the south measures around 1000 kilometers (621 miles)

Below, the surface of Afghanistan is displayed


Surface (in square kilometers)

Surface (in square miles)

There is no data of Afghanistan having a significant amount of water that permanently resides within its border. The river Amu Dayra is the largest river in Afghanistan and also a demarcation for its border with Tajikistan, Pakistan and Uzbekistan. 


Below, a graph is shown which displays the absolute amount of water of each state in square kilometers and square miles.

Surface (water)

Water Surface (in square kilometers)

Water Surface (in square miles)

Share of water (%)

About 80 percent of drinking water in Afghanistan is polluted and access to water is among the lowest in the world. The main source of water comes from the mountains where melting snow forms small rivers. Other than that, Afghanistan has no surface water that resides within its border.


Afghanistan's share of water, as well as the other states are displayed below.

Humidity, distance to the equator and elevation are some of the factors that affect the temperature of a state. Being located close to the equator, as well as being a mountainous state, the temperature of Afghanistan is prone to high fluctuation. Being a steppe climate, Afghanistan's temperature is relatively volatile. The average temperature of Afghanistan is 13,3 degrees celcius (or 55,94 degrees farenheit) which ranks Afghanistan as the 137th warmest state.


Below the average temperature is displayed.


 The average highest temperature of afghanistan is 22°C (71,6°F) which ranks Afghanistan as the 131th warmest state. This means that Afghanistan's highest temperature is 8,7°C (47.66°F) above the average temperature of Afghanistan. Below the average temperature is displayed.

Average temperature (in Celcius)

Average temperature (in Farenheit)

Average high temperature (in Celcius)

Average high temperature (in Farenheit)

The average lowest temperature of Afghanistan is 7,8°C (46,04°F) which ranks Afghanistan as the 49th coldest state. This means that Afghanistan's average lowest temperature is 5,5°C (41,9°F) below the average temperature of Afghanistan. Below, the average low temperature of all states is  displayed.

Average low temperature (in Celcius)

Average low temperature (in Farenheit)


Rainfall in Afghanistan is scarce. With an average of 352,9 cm (13,89 in), Afghanistan ranks 170th of the global rang of most rainfall. The rainfall season in Afghanistan is mainly in the spring and in autumn.

Average rainfall (mm)

Average rainfall (inch)

Distance to other capitals (kilometers)

Distance to other capitals (miles)


The capital of Afghanistan, Kabul, is located in the east of Afghanistan. Its nearest capital is Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan with a distance of 344.7 kilometers (214.2 miles). While the capital that is located furthest from Kabul is Santiago, Chile with a distance of 16359.2 kilometers (10165.4 miles). Below, the distances from Kabul to other capitals is displayed.

The official economy of Afghanistan is mainly based on agriculture as well as small based industries. However, a large amount of income is based in narcotics and drug trafficking. This is also shown in Afghanistan's global share of around 90 percent of the production of heroin.


With a vast amount of natural minerals residing within its territory, Afghanistan has the potential to become one of the most prosperous states in the region. This has sparked the interest of other states, with China becoming its main trading partner. Below, the economics of Afghanistan will be displayed with the analysis of the following features:


  • Number of memberships of economic organizations
  • Gross Domestic Product (US$)
  • Gross Domestic Product per capita (in US$)
  • GDP per square kilometer (in US$)
  • GDP per square mile (in US$)

Economic organizations

Gross Domestic Product (US$)

Gross Domestic Product per capita

Amount of memberships (economic organizations)

Absolute earnings for every 1$

Relative earnings

GDP in PPP per capita (in US$)


GDP in PPP per capita

Gross Domestic product (in million US$)

GDP per capita (in US$)

Afghanistan is a member of 13 international economic organizations. This ranks Afghanistan as the 41st of most economically internationally connected states. The international economic organizations of which Afghanistan is a member are:


  • Alliance for Financial Inclusion   
  • Asian Development Bank            
  • Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank    
  • International Development Law Organization     
  • International Monetary Fund     
  • Islamic Development Bank          
  • World Bank Group          

  • World Customs Organization      

  • World Trade Organization           

  • Economic Cooperation Organization       

  • Energy Charter Treaty   

  • International Renewable Energy Agency International Solar Alliance         

  • Group of 77

Below, you will find the graph that displays the states and their amount of memberships

With narcotics accounting for about half, the nominal GDP of 18.9 billion ranks Afghanistan as the 118th highest state internationally. In relative terms, Afghanistan represents 0.023% of the global GDP. Below, the GDP of all states is displayed.

The GDP representation above shows the total market value produced by a state. This is unfortunately only a representation of the market value within a specific territory. Since people are responsible for an increase of GDP, the more populous states are prone to have a higher GDP. The GDP per capita divides the nominal GDP by population count. Therefore, the GDP per capita gives a better representation of the economic value that individuals add within the state. 


The GDP per capita of Afghanistan is $517.54, which ranks it 186th globally. The map below shows the GDP per capita of every state.

The absolute earnings (GDP per capita) has shown that the average Afghani earns $517.54 per year. The figure below displays the average amount that inhabitant of other states earn for every 1$ that an average Afghan citizen makes.

Another interesting graph is the GDP that is produced per square kilometer or square mile of each state. A high GDP of states with a  large surface, as well as a low population, could be explained by the availability of a large amount of natural reserves as well as the means to extract these reserves. 


The GDP per square kilometer of Afghanistan is 28,878$ per square kilometer (74,793$ per square mile). Which ranks Afghanistan 180th of highest GDP per km2/mi2. 

The rest of the world is displayed below.


Surface GDP

GDP per square kilometer (in US$)

GDP per square mile(in US$)

Relative GDP in PPP

The Gross Domestic Product in Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) is another way to compare states. PPP researches the prices of several basic market products within each state and calculates the amount of goods a person within that state can buy within its borders. 


 The GDP PPP per capita of Afghanistan is $2043 which ranks it 178th globally. Other states will be shown on the right.

The relative Gross Domestic Product in Purchasing Power Parity compares the purchasing power of Afghanistan with the rest of the world.




The graph on the left displays the purchasing power parity of the rest of the world in relation to the purchasing power of 1$ in Afghanistan. 

Afghanistan is an ethnically mixed state. Due to this, the official languages Persian and Pashto are. Also, about a quarter of Afghanis live in Urban areas. Other demographics of Afghanistan are not up to date due to the absence of recent surveys amongst its population.


The demographics analyzed in this section are:


  • Population
  • Population per square kilometer
  • Population per square mile
  • Share of emigration


Afghanistan has 36,57 million inhabitants living in its 34 provinces. 50 percent of which are under the age of 18. Compared to  the rest of the world, Afghanistan is ranked 128th of the most populated states. 


Below, the population of each state is displayed.

Population density

With its surface area, which ranked Afghanistan 40th, divided by its population count (128th), the population density of Afghanistan is ranked as the 125th most populous state with a population of 56 people per square kilometer of 144 people per square mile.


Below, the population density of each state is displayed.


Due to the Afghan war against the Soviet Union and the ''War on terror " of the United States over the past four decades, there has been a large number of displaced Afghanis. Other factors of Afghan emigration are droughts, regime changes, economic motivation and socio-political reasons. Around 5.111.000 Afghans (16% of its population) have emigrated to neighboring states as well as overseas. 


Below, the states are displayed with the amount of Afhgani's that of emigrated to these states


With a total of 112.000 people that have immigrated to Afghanistan, immigration into Afghanistan has been rare. Afghanistan is ranked 118th of most states with the most immigrants. One assumption is that this is due to the war on terror. Other factors could be of socioeconomic nature. The people that immigrated to Afghanistan originate only from two states, Pakistan and Uzbekistan.


Afghanistan is ranked 186th highest in literacy rates with more than half of its population unable to read. One factor is that the Taliban within Afghanistan is limiting education, and especially education to women whom are disproportionally affected. The presence of war is also a factor that is contributing to illiteracy, The discrepancy between men and women is quite high with 30% of men and 15% of women that are literate. 


The life expectancy of Afghanistan is about 50 years for men and 53 years for women. Health is a difficult thing to measure. The quality of healthcare, genetics, and the environment are all factors that attribute to the health of a population. Based on these factors, Afghanistan is ranked 175th globally of the most healthy states globally.


Below, the global rank of each state is displayed

Population density (in km2)